the year that rock imploded

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David Hepworth’s book Never a Dull Moment is subtitled “1971 The Year That Rock Exploded,” and let’s start with the dubious premise that in order to make that case stick he has to claim that Don McLean’s strained, torturous “American Pie” is “one of the first great pop records that is about great pop records.” That’s just wacky: to a large extent, pop music has always been self-referential; a lot of the earliest rock & roll records were about rock & roll itself, and anyone with a rudimentary knowledge of pop history could fill multiple blog posts about “great pop records” that were about “great pop records.” In “Havin’ A Party,” just the first that pops into my head, Sam Cooke implores the DJ he’s addressing to keep playing hits like “Soul Twist” and “I Know.” Hell, you can go back to the big band era and “Juke Box Saturday Night” for an example of a song that quotes from other, prior songs, and let’s not get started on things like “Those Oldies But Goodies (Remind Me of You)” and “Memories of El Monte.” But the book is filled with nonsense like that. Right at the top, Hepworth states definitively that ’71 was “the busiest, most creative, most innovative, most interesting, and longest-resounding year of that era.” Which just isn’t true, even if that last qualifier – “of that era” – means the era from 1970 to 1972.

Hepworth and I are around the same age, and no doubt bought dozens of the same albums in 1971, so I can understand the underlying romanticism about a period of time that coincided with an intense interest in every single thing that was happening in rock. But in order to canonize that particular year above all others, you’d have to buy into the idea that rock got better after the Beatles broke up, when Dylan was floundering around, years after Brian Wilson passed his creative peak, and after Jimi Hendrix died. You’d have to ignore the fact that two of the best bands of that period, the Band and Creedence Clearwater Revival, released relatively unimpressive albums in ’71. In a recent piece I wrote for a music website, I pronounced emphatically that 1966 was the “best” year, and even if you take issue with that, you couldn’t (or shouldn’t) argue that Revolver, Blonde on Blonde and Pet Sounds don’t represent some apex of achievement for those artists, especially compared to what they were up to in ’71. To advocate for ’71, you almost have to contradict the idea of a rock pantheon and disregard the fact that the artists that sit atop it did their best work in other years.

Look at Hepworth’s list of the 100 albums that are, we assume, evidence of why he’s right about everything he says in the prior pages. In nearly every case, the albums were preceded or followed by better ones by the same artist: Tupelo Honey, Madman Across the Water, Pendulum, Santana III, Grateful Dead (Skull and Roses), Surf’s Up, L.A. Woman. Hell, even the album that gives this book its name came after Every Picture Tells a Story, and as much as I love the album that was the sequel, cut-for-cut I think you’d have to go with the earlier one. And the Stones’ Sticky Fingers had superior Stones albums on either side of it: Let It Bleed and Exile on Main St. Are Randy Newman Live, Neil Young’s Harvest and the Kinks’ Muswell Hillbillies really the albums you want to point to as emblematic of those artists’ indisputable brilliance? All the albums cited are perfectly ok, but with few exceptions (I get why someone might stand on a soapbox and testify on behalf of Blue, Who’s Next and Led Zep’s fourth, although I prefer other albums by all three), not many all-time best lists are going to feature these, not when there are Tumbleweed Connection, American Beauty, Saint Dominick’s Preview, Cosmo’s Factory and Abraxas in close chronological proximity. Is ‘71’s Hunky Dory really more significant than ‘72’s The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders From Mars?

The problem is that Hepworth didn’t just say that 1971 was a fun year to be twenty-one and into rock, and that a bunch of durable albums came out during those twelve months. Because if you strip the book of its thesis of ‘71’s superiority, it’s got a lot of cultural insight and scene-setting anecdotes: the chapters on T-Rex, Cat Stevens and Rod Stewart, the Concert for Bangla Desh, and Blue and Tapestry, are very nicely drawn. Unfortunately, the book is also filled with errors: Phil Spector didn’t produce the Chiffons’ “He’s So Fine,” Paul McCartney didn’t write Badfinger’s “No Matter What.” Van Dyke Parks’s “lushly orchestrated song suite” wasn’t Discover America, it was Song Cycle (you’d think the title would be a tip-off). And Mitch Miller wasn’t the composer of “How Do You Do It.”

It’s as though Hepworth began with an idea, that this was the year rock “came of age,” and then worked backwards to try and back that up. Rock did “explode” in 1971, in the sense that it was fragmenting into pieces, genres becoming more separated from each other, the idea of an all-embracing audience being dismantled. It was a transitional year, the year Bill Graham closed his Fillmores on both coasts because even the dominant rock promoter was having doubts about the sustainability of the rock community. 1971 was stuck in the middle, between the kaleidoscopic adventure of the ‘60s and the emergence of punk in the second half of the ‘70s. To elevate it to the stature of rock’s best year is more than a stretch. It’s an act of contortion.

a tuxedo, a highball, a country tune

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Smack in the middle of the 1960s, an Italian-American crooner from Ohio and a team of crack session players in Los Angeles made a series of country-pop albums and not many people stopped to consider how extremely weird that was. I mean, listen to some of the tracks on Houston, the third Dean Martin album LP Reprise released that year; the title cut a relaxed, finger-snapping number by Lee Hazlewood, the barely-ambulatory vocal on the single “I Will,” the Tijuana Brass-like horns on “Detour,” the mod-country organ on “Hammer and Nails.” The whole thing takes the notion of cosmopolitan country music to a surreal level. Every few weeks, it seemed, Dean strolled into the studio with producer Jimmy Bowen and the Wrecking Crew and knocked off a dozen tracks that came from everywhere – (Remember Me) I’m The One Who Loves You is mostly country (“Born To Lose,””Take These Chains From My Heart,” “My Shoes Keep Walking Back To You”), but also makes room for the pop hit “The Birds and The Bees” and the antique “Red Roses For A Blue Lady”—and whipped into an easy-listening cocktail, with strings, backing vocals and Martin’s bourbon baritone.

It’s oxymoronic to say that Martin settled into a groove during that period, because settling into a groove was his jam, as the kids might or might not say. What he thought of these songs or this approach or anything else was irrelevant. Who would even ask him? He might not’ve liked rock all that much (he famously joshed about the Rolling Stones when introducing them on The Hollywood Palace) but that didn’t stop him from getting his kid’s group (Dino, Desi and Billy) a deal with his pally Sinatra’s label, or doing what he had to do to stay on the charts. And it turned out that what Bowen concocted for him was a pretty solid formula: From the summer of ’64 when, from out of nowhere. “Everybody Loves Somebody” became a number one hit, through late 1968, Martin and Bowen scored nine gold albums. In 1966 alone, they put out five albums, and were able to keep up this insane pace by recycling tracks from LP to LP (‘66’s Somewhere There’s A Someone pulled selections from a couple of country-centric 1963 albums, and who cared? Not Dean).

We can assume that those two ’63 efforts – Dean “Tex” Martin: Country Style and Dean “Tex” Martin Rides Again — were a response to Ray Charles’ ’62 Modern Sounds In Country and Western Music; Rides Again even uses one of Charles’ arrangers, Marty Paich, on a collection that draws on Hank Williams, Harlan Howard, Eddy Arnold. But those albums didn’t sell (that’s why Reprise was so quick to recycle the tracks), and it wasn’t until after “Everybody Loves Somebody” (and its hastily-patched-together namesake album – the Wiki discography considers it a “compilation” — featuring songs such as “Shutters and Boards” and a twangy “Corrine, Corrina”) that everyone decided to live at this intersection of MOR and country for a while. It was incongruous, watching Dean on his television show, tuxedoed and under-rehearsed, the epitome of L.A. languor, doing selections from the Music City Songbook, mixing them up with oldies like “I’ll Be Seeing You” and “You’re Nobody Till Somebody Loves You,” breezing through them like he’s strolling off the 18th green and ready for a post-round drink. It was the country of cool.

It’s also a mess to sort out, this Martin in the mid-late ‘60s body of work, and no one has thought to do some type of chronological survey starting with those two ’63 “Tex” albums, and going through the rest of the decade, taking out The Silencers companion album to his first Matt Helm movie, and his Christmas and Dean Martin TV Show albums, avoiding the duplications from prior LPs, ending up at the end of the decade when Dean was doing Jimmy Webb, John Hartford, Tim Hardin (yes, really), Merle Haggard and Buck Owens (“I Take A Lot of Pride In What I Am,” “Crying Time”). You can even spill into the early ‘70s, and Kristofferson, Jerry Reed and Harlan Howard on For The Good Times. A lot of brush has to be cleared to get to Dean doing Hazlewood’s “Shades” (The Hit Sound of Dean Martin), and entering into the next decades uncovers things like his version of Arthur Alexander’s “You Better Move On,” and The Nashville Sessions, where he sings duets with Merle Haggard and Conway Twitty.

This was a trick not many of his peers could have pulled off. Tony Bennett may have helped kick off the whole country-to-pop strategy when Mitch Miller gave him Hank Williams songs to interpret, but you can’t picture him doing Cindy Walker, Marty Robbins and Bobby Bare songs. Jack Jones had a one-off novelty hit with George Jones’ “The Race Is On,” Bobby Darin tried to emulate Ray Charles throughout the You’re The Reason I’m Living album, and even Sammy Davis Jr and Buddy Greco tried to get into the swing of country, but none of them could loosen up enough; they all made the mistake of trying. So did Sinatra, when he approached “Little Green Apples” as though there were a tender torch song hiding inside the nonsense. For Dean, it was a break in his afternoon. Compare his “Gentle On My Mind” and “By The Time I Get To Phoenix” with Sinatra’s from exactly the same time (late ’68), the way Sinatra, bless him, struggles with lyrics that you know mean nothing at all to him, the way the Don Costa arrangements are sooo serious. Dean, he slouches into these songs. Does he, like Sinatra, play grammar cop and sneak a “gently on my mind” in there? Would that even cross his mind? He’d have been 99 years old today, and he’s justly celebrated for many things, but one of my favorite Dean Martins is when he sounds as though he’s a city slicker who’s stumbled into a saloon, found a jukebox with a bunch of country singles on it, orders a tall one and absent-mindedly sings along while eyeing a down-home Daisy Mae.

ready, set, go man go

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Because we live in a world that is often cruel and unjust, Pat Boone is walking around saying there should be laws against blasphemy (the Constitution not being so relevant in his cosmic worldview), since he was offended by a sketch on Saturday Night Live, while Little Richard is rumored to be gravely ill. That’s no small thing, the Little Richard situation. We are approaching, sadly, a point where very few of the originators of rock & roll are still with us. Of the first class of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, the ten artists who set the bar that has been so dramatically lowered in recent years, only Little Richard, Chuck Berry, Fats Domino, Jerry Lee Lewis and Don Everly survive, and only Chuck and Jerry Lee are still out there playing. The connective threads to rock’s early years are fraying badly, and the one bright spot in the attention paid to Little Richard’s health is that, if the Gods have a sense of what’s right, it will send people to their music collections and their computers to discover, or rediscover, what Little Richard was about.

I recently wrote a piece on the Ramones and talked about the dual responses of shock and laughter that some artists provoke, like, this is something so radical and absurd, but so conceptually perfect. Hendrix, who played guitar for Little Richard for a while, was like that, and Prince, and Elvis and The Beatles, of course: there were a couple of beats between the novelty of how they looked, how they sounded, what they projected, the audacity of it all, and the realization that this was something that couldn’t have been predicted but now was utterly essential.

I didn’t see Little Richard live until 1965 at the Paramount Theater in New York, a multi-artist (The Hollies, King Curtis, The Exciters…) bill hosted by Soupy Sales. By then, he’d stopped having hit records, but still he was in the air: The Beatles had cut “Long Tall Sally” (so did The Kinks) and “Kansas City/Hey-Hey-Hey Hey,” The Swinging Blue Jeans did “Good Golly, Miss Molly,” and “Lucille” was on The Hollies’ debut album. Later that year, Mitch Ryder & The Detroit Wheels incorporated “Jenny Jenny” into the hit medley “Jenny Take A Ride”. The Everly Brothers revived “Slippin’ and Slidin’” on their Rock’n Soul LP, and followed that with a version of “The Girl Can’t Help It” on the next album, Beat & Soul (The Animals and Wayne Fontana & The Mindbenders did that one also). Of course we knew who Little Richard was. He’d be one of the heads on any Mt. Rushmore of Rock & Roll that meant anything. And when he came out on stage he was, as anyone who’d ever seen him could tell you, explosive (The Explosive Little Richard would become, in ’67, the title of an Okeh LP). A lot of artists could play rock & roll. Little Richard was rock & roll.

Those early Specialty singles, the one he built his legacy on – although there were some fine records on VeeJay, Okeh, Reprise, Modern – came rushing at you. I mentioned the Ramones earlier, and Here’s Little Richard, his debut album, still sounds like it must have had the can’t-catch-your-breath impact of the Ramones’ first: bam! bam! bam! “Tutti Frutti,””Ready Teddy,” “Slippin’ and “Slidin’” (how did that even get on the radio??), “Long Tall Sally,””Miss Ann,””Rip It Up,” “Jenny Jenny,” “She’s Got It”…it’s completely crazed. A lot of those songs were hit singles way before the album came out, and a batch of them had shown up on the first two albums by Elvis (“Rip It Up” kicked off the Elvis LP, and “Ready Teddy” popped up on the B side). About Pat Boone, we will not speak, but it’s obvious why Presley and other ’50s rockers like Buddy Holly and the Everlys gravitated towards those songs: they were declarations of principles.

My heart says go go, have a time
‘Cause it’s Saturday night and I’m feelin’ fine
I’m gonna rock it up, I’m gonna rip it up
I’m gonna shake it up, gonna ball it up
I’m gonna rock it up, and ball tonight

What could kids in 1956 have made of that? The wildness, the abandon, the recklessness? Imagine buying the Specialty single of “Rip It Up,” flipping it over, and hearing this:

All the flat top cats and the dungaree dolls,
Are headed for the gym to the sock hop ball,
The joint is really jumpin’, the cats are going wild,
The music really sends me, I dig that crazy style.

He was ready ready Teddy, to rock and roll, and on those two sides of the same 45, he summed up the whole game, and naturally Elvis gripped on to both songs, because that was what he was selling: he was ready to rip it up. And Elvis got it: you see him singing “Ready Teddy” on TV in ’56 and it’s like he’s jumping out of his skin. But Little Richard was leaps beyond.We’re fortunate to have some astounding footage of him on film, in a couple of Alan Freed vehicles (Don’t Knock The Rock and Mister Rock and Roll), and especially in Frank Tashlin’s color and CinemaScope R&R extravaganza The Girl Can’t Help It, where his title song celebrates the figure made to squeeze of Jayne Mansfield, and he gets to pound out “She’s Got It” and “Ready Teddy.” Even though there’s an element of mockery in The Girl Can’t Help It, when the camera is pointed at Little Richard (even in the screen test below), it’s still a subversive jolt, nearly a half-century later. Nothing can contain him. He’s rock royalty.

steve miller??

There is so much wrong about what’s going on tonight in Brooklyn at the annual Rock and Roll Hall of Fame ceremony. It feels like a sweep-up year, like the committee has more or less conceded that they’re done with artists from the ‘50s and ‘60s, that anyone worthy from those decades, if they haven’t made it in so far they’re shit out of luck, so if you have any favorite garage bands or R&B groups or soul singers or pop acts from that era that you feel have been neglected, get over it. Goodbye Paul Revere and The Raiders and The Marvelettes, tough luck Jerry Butler, and you might as well write off Love, The Zombies and Moby Grape. And Mitch Ryder and The Detroit Wheels. But everyone I know who’s smart about popular music has a similar list (Brit Invasion fans lobbying for The Searchers as folk-rock pioneers, SF-scenesters wondering why Quicksilver Messenger Service have never been nominated, most people with good taste mentioning Doug Sahm and Gary U.S. Bonds), and the keepers of the Hall could not care less that every year their choices are met with a collective “huh?”. I stopped voting years ago, when it became obvious that any organization that enshrines Eagles (no “the,” I keep being reminded) and exiles Gram Parsons is not a place that welcomes my input.

So if Chicago, Deep Purple and Cheap Trick are your thing (named in ascending order of how much of my thing they are), have fun at Barclay, even though old wounds apparently have not healed enough for the individual members of Chicago and Deep Purple to share a stage. And N.W.A. have decided not to perform, so there goes a shot at a memorable moment. I suppose Deep Purple are being honored for the riff of “Smoke On The Water,” and I wouldn’t say they shouldn’t be, but no one who was involved in writing or playing “Louie Louie” is in the Hall, and which means more in the scheme of things? As for Chicago, defenders among my peers always point to that first double album on Columbia, when they were still Chicago Transit Authority, as enough of a reason to let them in, which puzzles the hell out of me, because that album is not nearly as good as Forever Changes, Odessey and Oracle or Moby Grape. And as a pop-singles machine, they’re way behind The Turtles, The Association and even Three Dog Night. Like, way behind. “Happy Together,” “Windy” or “Easy To Be Hard” vs “Colour My World,” “If You Leave Me Now” or “Hard To Say I’m Sorry”? This is madness.

I’m glad Bert Berns is getting one of the Hall’s nicely-done producer-writer prizes, because he earned it if he’d only done “Twist and Shout” and “Hang On Sloopy” and he did so much more. Steve Miller is kind of a mystery. I never thought he’d get in. He’s not even the most deserving Steve (Winwood is only in as a member of Traffic, which doesn’t seem fair because Stills is already in twice). The Steve Miller Band (the “Band,” you will note, is invisible to the HoF) made a few good albums (Sailor is more than good), and then from “Take The Money and Run” through the appalling “Abracadabra” the Band-less Mr. Miller churned out breezy pop-rock that was ok if you like that sort of thing, but if it’s Hall-worthy, what of The Doobie Brothers? What of America? Has Miller written a lyric as inspired as “Well I tried to make it Sunday, but I got so damn depressed/That I set my sights on Monday and I got myself undressed”? No, he has not. Steve Miller getting into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame is like Clete Boyer getting into the one for baseball. I know that riffs like this are what the Rock Hall wants, that complaining about omissions in a weird way reinforces the joint’s legitimacy, and that all chatter is publicity. But ponder for a moment that Harry Nilsson and Warren Zevon are not getting into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. The guy who wrote “Abra-abracadabra/I want to reach out and grab ya” is.

you make everything groovy

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The lunkhead inarticulateness and primitive musicality of “Wild Thing” as performed by The Troggs, that perfect distillation of rock & roll idiocy that has proven so central to the basic cultural vocabulary that few people who have lifted an electric guitar can resist bashing it out (from Hendrix and The Ventures, to Springsteen and Petty, to Jeff Beck and Cheap Trick, to Joan Jett and Chrissie Hynde), is probably the reason Chip Taylor is being inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame this year, and I can’t argue that “Wild Thing” alone wouldn’t be sufficient grounds for his recognition. The Troggs’ version was a cover (it was done first by a group called The Wild Ones, famed for being the house band at the ‘60s discotheque Arthur), but it’s definitive; it stomps and lurches around, and singer Reg Presley enters with a leering whine: “Wild Thing,” he addresses the girl in his field of vision, “you make my heart sing. You make everything groovy.” He could be on the street, or in a pub, possibly she’s a complete stranger, but no matter. He thinks he loves her, but his feelings need confirmation by proximity, by physical contact. How can he be certain, until his body is pressed against hers? He’s not that demanding. She embraces him, we assume, and presto: “I love you.” He is a man of not much complexity, or many demands. There are two things he requests: “Come on and hold me tight” and, later, “Shake it, shake it.” The sweet nothings of seduction.

Taylor’s “Wild Thing” is central to his legacy. Other worthy covers: X, Warren Zevon, Le Pecore Nere (in Spanish, as “Torna”), Senator Bobby. Jeff Buckley fooled around with it on his home demos, doing it as a Dylan impression, Liz Phair did a revamped version, and if you want a peek into the depths of hair-rock hell as foisted upon the world by MTV, there is “Wild Thing” bellowed by Sam Kinison, accompanied by rockers chanting the hook, and the writhing of Jessica Hahn. Future generations will look upon this stupefied, wondering why this seemingly homeless psychopath is screaming, why he’s being egged on by a chorus of dumb-looking pretty boys, and whether this poor inflated woman is a hostage. But this artifact aside, “Wild Thing” has had an impressive half-century, and if it’s responsible for getting Taylor into the Hall of Fame, that’s good news.

Because Taylor has a cluster of other memorable songs. When “Angel of the Morning” got on the radio in 1968 by Merrilee Rush & The Turnabouts – the original, better single was by Evie Sands – it was as startling in its much quieter way as “Wild Thing” was a couple of years earlier. It’s so matter-of-fact about sex without agenda, and to hear a woman plainly tell the guy he can just slip away after the night with only a touch on the cheek, that was new for pop. “There’ll be no strings to bind your hand,” are the first words of the song, written by Taylor with Al Gorgoni, and Merrilee, and Evie, and all the women who sang it after them (Skeeter Davis, P.P. Arnold, Billie Davis, Juice Newton, Olivia Newton-John, Bonnie Tyler, Mandy Barnett, Bettye Swann, Chrissie Hynde, even Nina Simone) always sound as though they’re still naked under the sheets. ”I see no need to take me home/I’m old enough to face the dawn,” they all say, and it’s not a walk of shame. Maybe there won’t be bright sunlight on her, maybe there will, either way, no worries. It was thrilling stuff for a Top 10 single, the idea that intimacy can be fleeting and guiltless.

Chip Taylor and Evie Sands, most often but not always with Gorgoni, also collaborated on the bold “Any Way That You Want Me” (where Evie offers up love if it’s on the table, but if it’s not, she’s still game, no explanation necessary), on “I Can’t Let Go” (a hit for The Hollies) and such neglected 45s as “Picture Me Gone,” “Run Home To Your Mama” and “You’ve Got Me Uptight.” There are also a few lost Taylor songs (“I’ll Never Be Alone Again,” “Close Your Eyes, Cross Your Fingers,” “Shadow of the Evening,” “I’ll Hold Out My Hand”) on the excellent album Taylor & Gorgoni produced for Evie on A&M, Any Way That You Want Me, an album that sits stylistically somewhere between Dusty In Memphis and Tapestry, but with a late-‘60s New York City-pop texture (a couple of tracks were done in L.A. with the Wrecking Crew). All of those songs, and others like “Try (A Little Bit Harder)” and “Don’t Say It Baby” make for a solid songwriting resume, but I think we can expect a couple of things at June’s Hall of Fame ceremony: a collective hormonal swoon when someone sings “Angel of the Morning,” and a wall-rattling sing along. “Come on and hold me tight. You move me.” That’s all it takes. “Shake it, shake it Wild Thing.”

my tears are like crystals, they cover my windowpane

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How to explain why hearing that Lee Andrews had passed away gave me such a rush of sadness, why I was so moved by his son Questlove’s tribute to him? To most people, I suspect, reading Questlove’s online post was the first time they’d heard the name Lee Andrews, and they might well have wondered what #leeandrewsandthehearts referred to. But I’ve been immersed in the world of doo wop for a long time, and recently on a more intense level, so to me, knowing Lee Andrews was gone was yet another reminder that there is a generation of singers that is vanishing, and with them, all the links to a nearly forgotten street in the city of popular music of the 20th century. Most of those singers weren’t stars; there are only a handful in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. But they were in the air. They were the air. Their songs were a wellspring of emotion, and in their quiet way they made history. Vocal harmony in the 1950’s changed the world in ways small and grand, and anyone who relegates that sound to mere nostalgia, to malt shop memories, is a fool. The Moonglows, The Heartbeats, The Flamingos, Little Anthony and The Imperials, Dion and The Belmonts, The 5 Royales, The Harptones, Lee Andrews and The Hearts and countless others were the sound of a young America, its sentimentality, its impetuousness, its belief in the possibility of love, its magnification of every heartbreak. Lee Andrews and The Hearts from Philadelphia sang “Long Lonely Nights,” a song that needs to be heard on a transistor radio at 2 am, a song that can wreck you. It’s not that the singer misses his girlfriend, he’s haunted by her, and the void she’s left behind is limitless.

As I go along my lonely way I visualize your face
When I pass through my doorway
What’s left for me to face?

“What’s left for me to face?” A lot of people don’t realize how filled with existential dread so much doo wop is, how the loss of love becomes the loss of self, how deep singers like Lee Andrews had to dig to transcend the elementary poetry, simple enough for any fourteen-year-old listening to Alan Freed on WINS to grasp and take to heart. Think of “Tear Drops” from 1957, the biggest national hit Lee Andrews and The Hearts ever had. One note is plunked on the piano, like: “now,” and the vocal begins, “I sit in my room looking out at the rain/My tears are like crystals, they cover my windowpane.” Then the rest of the group comes in, and the mea culpa continues: “I know you’ll never forgive me dear for running out on you/I was wrong to take a chance on somebody new.” By the time the song hits the 1:30 mark, you’re thinking, 1) how did he screw this relationship up so terribly?, and 2) why is this song called “Tear Drops”? In that second line, he mentions those windowpane-covering tears (how does that work, exactly?), and if the song has a chorus (it doesn’t, really), it feels as though it should be “oh, if we only could start over again.” But then The Hearts chant “Tear Drops” a few times, almost as taunting counterpoint, or a bridge, and although the song is about asking forgiveness, and hoping for another chance, it seems futile. What the song is really about is despair.

Lee Andrews and The Hearts had only one more Billboard chart single, 1958’s “Try The Impossible,” but that wasn’t the end of his story. He jumped around from label to label for quite a while, doing time at two of the most significant pop labels in Philadelphia, Swan (a nice version of the standard “P.S. I Love You” is in that catalog, and “I Miss You So”) and Parkway (highlights: “I’m Sorry Pillow” and “Gee, But I’m Lonesome”) and briefly on UA and RCA (“Quiet As It’s Kept,” a Northern Soul thing), and there are some fine later records on Crimson (the Motownish “Never The Less”). You have to assemble all this on your own since, sadly, there is no one source that gathers together all of Lee Andrews’s discography and puts it in perspective, the early work with The Hearts, the later solo singles. He was one of those singers who snuck away, name-checked by any doo wop aficionado who knows anything, but whose importance can’t be measured by chart singles or industry awards. In mourning Lee Andrews, we mourn so many of his fellow singers, voices that stopped us in our tracks when we heard the original records on Gus Gossert’s radio show and made us hunt everything down. They made records that were heart-wrenching but also hopeful. “Try The Impossible” goes, “Tell me you want me, and our love will conquer all,” and that was the flip side of doo wop, the belief that, in love, you have to take a leap of faith:

“Make the impossible, the incredible
And all of my dreams come true”

get your kicks in ’66

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When 1966 began, the top 20 singles in New York City included records by The Beatles, The Byrds, The Rolling Stones, James Brown, The Righteous Brothers, The Animals, The Lovin’ Spoonful, Frank Sinatra and Simon & Garfunkel. As it ended, among the chart’s occupants were The Four Tops. The Mamas and the Papas, Mitch Ryder and The Detroit Wheels, The Temptations, The Supremes and The 4 Seasons. It was the year Motown peaked, The Beach Boys released Pet Sounds, Dylan released Blonde on Blonde, and The Velvet Underground, Cream and The Jimi Hendrix Experience made their debuts, and a whole bunch of singles that were compiled on Nuggets came out. It was, as the subtitle of Jon Savage’s new book 1966 calls it, “the year the decade exploded,” and he doesn’t mean just musically. Covering the year month by month, he ties the records – singles, mostly – to the social and political swirl of events: Vietnam, Black Power, gay rights and feminism, drugs and fashion, scene-making from London to the Sunset Strip, choosing some representative 45s, some well-known (“Good Vibrations,” “Winchester Cathedral,” “19th Nervous Breakdown) and some less so (Norma Tanega’s “Walking My Cat Named Dog,””My Mind’s Eye” by the Small Faces) as illustrations.

There may have never been a pop year so alive with invention, a more perfect intersection of what was good and what was popular, a year when, before the great divide between AM and FM, nothing “didn’t fit.” Look at the hot singles list from exactly a half-century ago, a not-untypical combination of Motown (“This Old Heart of Mine,” ”Shake Me, Wake Me”), The Beatles and The Stones, blues and soul (Slim Harpo, Wilson Pickett), LA-pop like “California Dreamin’” and “These Boots Are Made For Walkin’,” and there was room for “I Fought The Law,” “Good Lovin’” and “Inside-Looking Out.” Is it any wonder so many kids kept their radios on constantly? That may have been pop’s last gasp. As Savage writes, “It wasn’t called that yet in the UK, but late 1966 was the moment when rock began.” In his last chapters, he describes Brian Wilson endlessly tracking what would have been Smile, and The Beatles laboring over “Strawberry Fields Forever,” and the blasts of something new that were Cream’s “I Feel Free” and Hendrix’s “Hey Joe.” If you want to draw a pop/rock dividing line, you might as well start there.

The 2-CD set that’s the book’s companion is like spending two hours tuned to the hippest hit station of ’66, even if it doesn’t have any Beatles, Stones or Dylan (I might stick “Can You Please Crawl Out Your Window?” on the 1966 playlist for fun, and “Paint It, Black” and “Rain”). If you can’t get jazzed about “96 Tears” leading into “I Can’t Turn You Loose” and then into the apocalyptic Motown masterpiece “Reach Out I’ll Be There,” then pop doesn’t matter much to you, and Savage mixes those up with rare tracks by The Oxford Circle, Blue Things and The Tornados (the surreal, gay-coded, Joe Meek-produced “Do You Come Here Often?”). The final three tracks of the second disc are Bowie’s “The London Boys,” The Marvelettes’ Smokey opus “The Hunter Gets Captured By The Game” and Tim Hardin’s “Hang On To A Dream.” You or I might pick three different singles to represent the end of 1966, but it’s hard to imagine they’d be better.

Looming over the last hundred or so pages of 1966 is a politician running for high office. He “was on the crest of a wave…He directly addressed public concerns about the apparently unraveling social fabric, speaking out passionately about rising crime levels, moral turpitude…and the riots that seemed to be spreading….[He] stood for old-fashioned values, the right of business to be unimpeded, the rule of law and order and, above all, patriotism.” He hadn’t held elected office, had hosted a television show, and scared his constituency with warnings about protesters, Black Panthers, free-speech advocates at Berkeley. That November – as records like “Bang! Bang!” by Joe Cuba, “Walk Away Renee” by The Left Banke and “What Becomes of the Broken Hearted” by Jimmy Ruffin made the top 10 vibrant and eclectic – the people of California elected Ronald Reagan their Governor.

the gaga goodtimes variety hour

I think it was that song “Applesauce” – oh, sorry, “Applause” – that first had me wondering what was up with Lady Gaga. Was this irony? Self-awareness? Was she serious? She struck me from the start as someone who probably watched her VHS copy of Fame way too many times, a driven young woman who could have existed in any era; in the ‘30s, she’d have been Ruby Keeler, who showed up in musicals up to her armpits in spunkiness and clunked around the set; in the ‘50s, she’d have knocked on every door in the Brill Building, belting for every mini-mogul who might be able to whip her into a proximity of Connie Francis or Jo Ann Campbell; she’d have been most at home in the ‘70s, cutting a few upbeat easy-listening singles and then getting a summer-replacement variety show on one of the networks, where she could do tribute medleys, duets, and comedy bits with David Frye and Franklin Ajaye. She has that up-for-anything eagerness that Cher and Midler have.

I used to see girls like that all over the city, going on auditions, doing showcases at The Bitter End, getting small roles off-off Broadway, recording demos, hitting the clubs. If Gaga had anything special going on, I missed it, but I’ve missed things before, and as time went on, it looked like I must have been mistaken, because look: Elton digs her, and so does Tony, and she’s showing up everywhere. Even Howard Stern was smitten when she went on his show and screamed something that went “The edge! The edge! The edge!’ like she was in the pit at a U2 concert. It seemed overwrought and jokey to me, but friends told me differently. She was real, they insisted, even as the music reminded me of Taylor Dayne.

She can really sing!, I heard tell, and then I saw her on the Oscars doing a medley from The Sound of Music. See! Very nice, really. But you could fling a rock down Broadway from 50th Street and randomly hit an understudy in any musical now playing who could have done that, not to mention any true musical theater star like Kelli O’Hara, Sutton Foster or Audra McDonald. Gaga got extra credit, I think, for being from the pop world, for the element of the unexpected: that girl who wore the dress made of meat? She has a voice? Who knew? And that album with Tony Bennett just made me sad, because that was the album he should have made with Amy Winehouse, an artist who could have done emotional justice to that material and that history, who never gave the impression of playing dress-up the way Gaga does. Gaga flings herself into the role of slinky chanteuse, but she’s only moderately convincing. Check out the scenes of Bennett and Winehouse in the heart-shattering doc Amy, and weep. But the calls kept coming: she’s doing a Sinatra tribute. Oy. What could that be? I was hoping for “Everybody’s Twistin’,” but they gave her “(Theme From) New York, New York,” and as anyone might have predicted, it was far closer to an impression of the song’s original interpreter Liza Minnelli than to the Chairman of the Board. It’s fine, that’s who Gaga is, an entertainer from the old school, and if she did have that ‘70s variety show, that’s what it’d have been: Julie Andrews one week, Liza the next, then maybe a six-minute medley of songs by that hip new rock star David Bowie.

Oh, wait. That wasn’t her imaginary variety show. That was the actual 2016 Grammy Awards, a spectacle so transcendently goofy that it made all the liberties and inaccuracies of HBO’s Vinyl look like a Pennebaker documentary. The next day, I posted a puzzled comment on Facebook, and my smart-ass friends made some brilliant comparisons, like one observation that Gaga was channeling Lola Heatherton, Catherine O’Hara’s character from SCTV (to which I added that Seth MacFarlane could be her Bobby Bittman), or another calling it a lost sketch from a Carol Burnett Show. As counterpoint, some people rallied to Gaga’s defense, praised her artistry (in general, not in the specific case of the Bowie debacle), and pointed out that as an older gentleman, I might not be the right demographic to appreciate the glory of Gaga. Which I don’t deny, but as someone who thinks Taylor Swift’s Red and Katy Perry’s Teenage Dream are pretty exemplary Pop Albums, and has sat riveted during a Swift arena show whilst being the oldest non-parent/chaperone in the room, I don’t completely buy that it’s a sign of aging. I think, honestly, that Gaga really does live for the applesauce.

who are the beatles?

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Pop history is reductive, and skewed. A friend forwarded along a Spotify list published in Billboard of popular Beatles songs broken down by demographics, and while a lot of the statistics are baffling (is “Mean Mr. Mustard” really the third most-popular Beatles track among streamers aged 55-plus? What’s with 30-34 year olds and “Hello Goodbye” and “Ob-La-Di. Ob-La-Da”? How does “You Never Give Me Your Money” rank as a stand-alone #6 song among the 18-24 group?), what’s evident is that the younger you are, the more you listen to “Here Comes The Sun.” In the 17-and-under demo, that’s the #1 track, and when you reach those from 18-to-24, it comes in second only to “I Want To Hold Your Hand.” (And yet somehow, in the boomerest demo, 55-plus, “I Want To Hold Your Hand,””She Loves You”– #1 in the 30-34 gang – “Can’t Buy Me Love,” “A Hard Day’s Night” don’t even make the top 10. The only 1964 track that makes that list is “Do You Want To Know A Secret.”) I’m no statistician, but I’ve been looking over these seven top ten lists looking for any patterns that make sense. What albums are the tracks on? What cultural anomalies come into play? Why do people under 18 play “Love Me Do” more than any other age group does? Why, after not appearing on any other list, does the cover of Chuck Berry’s “Rock and Roll Music” leap to #1 on the 55+ chart? Who are The Beatles? The answer seems to be: it depends on how old you are.

Like, 45-54 year olds make “Back In The U.S.S.R.” their #1, but no other cuts from The Beatles (aka The White Album) are anywhere in the top ten. “Let It Be” is in the youngest demo’s top ten, then vanishes, apparently, until you hit 45 years old. So from 18 through 44, you’re not in the mood to hear “Let It Be” all that much, and then you are, and then not so much anymore once you turn 55? And what to make of the fact that “I Am The Walrus” and “Strawberry Fields Forever” are nowhere (“Penny Lane” is on every under-30 list), but if you’re under 25, “Come Together” is one of your favorites? There is a big “We Can Work It Out” spike 35 through 54, but that demo doesn’t care as much for the superior flip side, “Day Tripper.” Some number one singles, “All You Need Is Love”,” “Eight Days A Week,” are out of every top ten, but the boomer chart contains “Glass Onion” and “Long, Long, Long.” I haven’t done a mathematical breakdown, but it looks like it’s the 25-to-29’s who gravitate most towards the earlier stuff (“From Me To You,” “A Hard Day’s Night,” “Love Me Do”), and they’re the only group that loves “Norwegian Wood” (#4).

On most all-time-albums surveys, Sgt. Pepper is way up at or near the top, and even if Rubber Soul and Revolver have weathered better musically, you still see Pepper floating up there in historical terms, but the streaming population doesn’t seem to be that impressed. “With A Little Help From My Friends” is on one list (18-24), the title track and “A Day In The Life” on a couple of others, and that’s it. No Lucy or Rita or Mr. Kite, no “Fixing A Hole” or “She’s Leaving Home” anywhere: it looks like people play the first and last tracks and don’t poke around much further, and you can say it’s because there were no singles on it, but that can’t be the whole explanation, can it? The charts are very singles-heavy, but other odd tracks do sneak in.

Why do people under 25 play “Here Comes The Sun” so much? And why is it so high (#1 or #2) on similar iTunes and Amazon charts? Of all the revelations on the Spotify charts, this stands out. It’s the only non-single on the under-18 list, and beats the Abbey Road single “Come Together” in the 18-24 demo. I don’t think it’s part of a Harrison renaissance, despite “Long, Long, Long” and “Something” turning up (surprise: “While My Guitar Gently Weeps” isn’t on these lists). I was going to chalk it up to the Glee factor: it was sung by Naya Rivera and Demi Lovato in a 2013 Beatles-themed episode, and on the Glee Sings The Beatles soundtrack album. But George’s “Something” is on that album also, and so are “You’ve Got To Hide Your Love Away” and “I Saw Her Standing There,” and none of those are top ten streams for the under-25 set. Was it a big grade-school sing-along (maybe: “Yellow Submarine” is big with that demo)? I have to guess that people in that age group (conscious-to-24) are doing the most streaming, which would mean that the 1-and-2 placing of “Here Comes The Sun” makes it the most streamed Beatles song on Spotify and combined with the other music services means it’s now, at least by this measurement, the Most Popular Beatles Track. Who’d have ever thought that would happen?: a late-period non-single, not written by John and/or Paul. Who are The Beatles? Keep asking, and the answer keeps changing.

it’s those restless hearts that never mend

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Disdain is so easy, isn’t it? You look at the bodies of work of certain artists — even more, maybe, than the work, the overall persona that comes through the music — and you find yourself thinking in the terms proposed in Robert Palmer’s famous New York Times review of a Billy Joel concert: “He’s the sort of popular artist who makes elitism seem not just defensible but necessary.” Substitute “they” for “he” in that sentence and you could be talking about Journey, or Styx, or the Eagles. It isn’t so much that there’s an embedded badness in how their music is executed (anyone might say that there are elements of craftsmanship or proficiency), but that they come across as inherently unlikable to a certain type of observer, a type of observer disproportionately represented in the rock critic population to which I belonged (belong? does one turn in those credentials at any point?). So I can say I don’t like the Eagles, or Mr. Joel (as the Times would have it), and let that be that, but as most things are, it’s more complicated. What about when Billy Joel, on tracks on An Innocent Man, proves himself an adept mimic of early-‘60s pop styles, demonstrates a genuine affection for doo wop? What about when he delivers impassioned, eloquent Rock and Roll Hall of Fame speeches on behalf of The Drifters and The Righteous Brothers? Can I really be so dismissive of that Billy Joel because I couldn’t listen one more time to “You May Be Right” or “Big Shot” or “It’s Still Rock and Roll To Me”? Or, God save me, “My Life”? A little perspective is nice, sometimes.

Which brings us to the Eagles, and Glenn Frey, and everything you have to blot out to get to the point where you (I) can live and let live and confess that there isn’t a California Playlist you’ve made that doesn’t include “New Kid In Town,” a song and a performance — from an album whose title track (“Hotel California”) ranks up there with “American Pie” as a smug, “cryptic” rock anthem — that threads together country-rock with hints of Del Shannon and Roy Orbison. Unlike “Hotel California,” which strikes me as labored and faux-weighty, “New Kid In Town” feels breezy on the surface, but within the song, and Frey’s vocal, is a sense of foreboding. Look, I’m in league with everyone who’s ever noted how the Eagles drained so much of the soulfulness and integrity of The Flying Burrito Brothers, slicked it up and made it a commercial machine, but if you told me “New Kid In Town” was written by Gram Parsons and not by Frey, Henley & Souther, I wouldn’t be shocked at all. And there are a few other Eagles hits (“I Can’t Tell You Why” by Frey, Henley & Timothy Schmidt, their debut 45 “Take It Easy,” started by Jackson Browne and completed by Frey, even, I have to say, “Lyin’ Eyes”) that make the band undismissible despite “Peaceful Easy Feeling” and “Witchy Woman.”

Frey’s death brought out all the accumulated resentment of his band, a band whose arrogance was on full display in the recent History of the Eagles doc, whose live shows might as well have been performed by marble statues with wigs and guitars, who gave the world “Life In The Fast Lane” and “Already Gone” (blame, at least in part, Joe Walsh and Jack Tempchin for those). That’s all fair enough, but it’s hard to hate, full-on hate, a band who covered (pretty convincingly) songs by Tom Waits, Gene Clark and Steve Young, did time in the country-rock outfits of Rick Nelson, Gram Parsons and Linda Ronstadt (I first saw Frey and Henley back her up in ’71), and inspired the Fred Armisen and Bill Hader homage Gentle and Soft: The Story of the Blue Jean Committee. I understand the impulse to want to punch them, because they seem like guys who would have stolen the Ramones’ lunch money in high school, because if they were Beach Boys, they’d all be Mike Love. Because oh, there are dozens of reasons (“Chug All Night,” for example). But I have to step back and confess, every time “New Kid In Town” comes on, I hit repeat.